Dotty Documentation


Programmatic Structural Types

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Some usecases, such as modelling database access, are more awkward in statically typed languages than in dynamically typed languages: With dynamically typed languages, it's quite natural to model a row as a record or object, and to select entries with simple dot notation (e.g. row.columnName).

Achieving the same experience in statically typed language requires defining a class for every possible row arising from database manipulation (including rows arising from joins and projections) and setting up a scheme to map between a row and the class representing it.

This requires a large amount of boilerplate, which leads developers to trade the advantages of static typing for simpler schemes where colum names are represented as strings and passed to other operators (e.g."columnName")). This approach forgoes the advantages of static typing, and is still not as natural as the dynamically typed version.

Structural types help in situations where we would like to support simple dot notation in dynamic contexts without losing the advantages of static typing. They allow developers to use dot notation and configure how fields and methods should be resolved.


object StructuralTypeExample {

  case class Record(elems: (String, Any)*) extends Selectable {
    def selectDynamic(name: String): Any = elems.find(_._1 == name).get._2

  type Person = Record {
    val name: String
    val age: Int

  def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
    val person = Record("name" -> "Emma", "age" -> 42).asInstanceOf[Person]
    println(s"${} is ${person.age} years old.")
    // Prints: Emma is 42 years old.


New instances of Selectable can be defined to support means of access other than Java reflection, which would enable usages such as the database access example given at the beginning of this document.

Relation with scala.Dynamic

There are clearly some connections with scala.Dynamic here, since both select members programmatically. But there are also some differences.

  • Fully dynamic selection is not typesafe, but structural selection is, as long as the correspondence of the structural type with the underlying value is as stated.

  • Dynamic is just a marker trait, which gives more leeway where and how to define reflective access operations. By contrast Selectable is a trait which declares the access operations.

  • Two access operations, selectDynamic and applyDynamic are shared between both approches. In Selectable, applyDynamic also takes ClassTag indicating the method's formal parameter types. Dynamic comes with updateDynamic.

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