Dotty Documentation


Programmatic Structural Types

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Previously, Scala supported structural types by means of reflection. This is problematic on other platforms, because Scala's reflection is JVM-based. Consequently, Scala.js and Scala.native don't support structural types fully. The reflction based implementation is also needlessly restrictive, since it rules out other implementation schemes. This makes structural types unsuitable for e.g. modelling rows in a database, for which they would otherwise seem to be an ideal match.

Dotty allows to implement structural types programmatically, using "Selectables". Selectable is a trait defined as follows:

trait Selectable extends Any {
  def selectDynamic(name: String): Any
  def selectDynamicMethod(name: String, paramClasses: ClassTag[_]*): Any =
    new UnsupportedOperationException("selectDynamicMethod")

The most important method of a Selectable is selectDynamic: It takes a field name and returns the value associated with that name in the selectable.

Assume now r is a value with structural type S. In general S is of the form C { Rs }, i.e. it consists of a class reference C and refinement declarations Rs. We call a field selection r.f structural if f is a name defined by a declaration in Rs whereas C defines no member of name f. Assuming the selection has type T, it is mapped to something equivalent to the following code:

(r: Selectable).selectDynamic("f").asInstanceOf[T]

That is, we make sure r conforms to type Selectable, potentially by adding an implicit conversion. We then invoke the get operation of that instance, passing the the name "f" as a parameter. We finally cast the resulting value back to the statically known type T.

Selectable also defines another access method called selectDynamicMethod. This operation is used to select methods instead of fields. It gets passed the class tags of the selected method's formal parameter types as additional arguments. These can then be used to disambiguate one of several overloaded variants.

Package scala.reflect contains an implicit conversion which can map any value to a selectable that emulates reflection-based selection, in a way similar to what was done until now:

package scala.reflect

object Selectable {
  implicit def reflectiveSelectable(receiver: Any): scala.Selectable =
    receiver match {
      case receiver: scala.Selectable => receiver
      case _ => new scala.reflect.Selectable(receiver)

When imported, reflectiveSelectable provides a way to access fields of any structural type using Java reflection. This is similar to the current implementation of structural types. The main difference is that to get reflection-based structural access one now has to add an import:

import scala.relect.Selectable.reflectiveSelectable

On the other hand, the previously required language feature import of reflectiveCalls is now redundant and is therefore dropped.

As you can see from its implementation above, reflectSelectable checks first whether its argument is already a run-time instance of Selectable, in which case it is returned directly. This means that reflection-based accesses only take place as a last resort, if no other Selectable is defined.

Other selectable instances can be defined in libraries. For instance, here is a simple class of records that support dynamic selection:

case class Record(elems: (String, Any)*) extends Selectable {
  def selectDynamic(name: String): Any = elems.find(_._1 == name).get._2

Record consists of a list of pairs of element names and values. Its selectDynamic operation finds the pair with given name and returns its value.

For illustration, let's define a record value and cast it to a structural type Person:

type Person = Record { val name: String; val age: Int }
val person = Record(("name" -> "Emma", "age" -> 42)).asInstanceOf[Person]

Then will have static type String, and will produce "Emma" as result.

The safety of this scheme relies on the correctness of the cast. If the cast lies about the structure of the record, the corresponding selectDynamic operation would fail. In practice, the cast would likely be part if a database access layer which would ensure its correctness.


  1. The scheme does not handle polymorphic methods in structural refinements. Such polymorphic methods are currently flagged as errors. It's not clear whether the use case is common enough to warrant the additional complexity of supporting it.

  2. There are clearly some connections with scala.Dynamic here, since both select members programmatically. But there are also some differences.

    • Fully dynamic selection is not typesafe, but structural selection is, as long as the correspondence of the structural type with the underlying value is as stated.

    • Dynamic is just a marker trait, which gives more leeway where and how to define reflective access operations. By contrast Selectable is a trait which declares the access operations.

    • One access operation, selectDynamic is shared between both approaches, but the other access operations are different. Selectable defines a selectDynamicMethod, which takes class tags indicating the method's formal parameter types as additional argument. Dynamic comes with applyDynamic and updateDynamic methods, which take actual argument values.


For more info, see Issue #1886.