Implicit Function Types

Implicit functions are functions with (only) implicit parameters. Their types are implicit function types. Here is an example of an implicit function type:

type Executable[T] = (given ExecutionContext) => T

An implicit function is applied to synthesized arguments, in the same way a method with a given clause is applied. For instance:

  given ec: ExecutionContext = ...

  def f(x: Int): Executable[Int] = ...

  f(2)(given ec)   // explicit argument
  f(2)             // argument is inferred

Conversely, if the expected type of an expression E is an implicit function type (given T_1, ..., T_n) => U and E is not already an implicit function literal, E is converted to an implicit function literal by rewriting to

  (given x_1: T1, ..., x_n: Tn) => E

where the names x_1, ..., x_n are arbitrary. This expansion is performed before the expression E is typechecked, which means that x_1, ..., x_n are available as givens in E.

Like their types, implicit function literals are written with a given prefix. They differ from normal function literals in two ways:

  1. Their parameters are defined with a given clause.
  2. Their types are implicit function types.

For example, continuing with the previous definitions,

  def g(arg: Executable[Int]) = ...

  g(22)      // is expanded to g((given ev) => 22)

  g(f(2))    // is expanded to g((given ev) => f(2)(given ev))

  g((given ctx) => f(22)(given ctx)) // is left as it is

Example: Builder Pattern

Implicit function types have considerable expressive power. For instance, here is how they can support the "builder pattern", where the aim is to construct tables like this:

  table {
    row {
      cell("top left")
      cell("top right")
    row {
      cell("bottom left")
      cell("bottom right")

The idea is to define classes for Table and Row that allow addition of elements via add:

  class Table {
    val rows = new ArrayBuffer[Row]
    def add(r: Row): Unit = rows += r
    override def toString = rows.mkString("Table(", ", ", ")")

  class Row {
    val cells = new ArrayBuffer[Cell]
    def add(c: Cell): Unit = cells += c
    override def toString = cells.mkString("Row(", ", ", ")")

  case class Cell(elem: String)

Then, the table, row and cell constructor methods can be defined with implicit function types as parameters to avoid the plumbing boilerplate that would otherwise be necessary.

  def table(init: (given Table) => Unit) = {
    given t: Table

  def row(init: (given Row) => Unit)(given t: Table) = {
    given r: Row

  def cell(str: String)(given r: Row) =
    r.add(new Cell(str))

With that setup, the table construction code above compiles and expands to:

  table { (given $t: Table) =>
    row { (given $r: Row) =>
      cell("top left")(given $r)
      cell("top right")(given $r)
    } (given $t)
    row { (given $r: Row) =>
      cell("bottom left")(given $r)
      cell("bottom right")(given $r)
    } (given $t)

Example: Postconditions

As a larger example, here is a way to define constructs for checking arbitrary postconditions using an extension method ensuring so that the checked result can be referred to simply by result. The example combines opaque aliases, implicit function types, and extension methods to provide a zero-overhead abstraction.

object PostConditions {
  opaque type WrappedResult[T] = T

  def result[T](given r: WrappedResult[T]): T = r

  def (x: T).ensuring[T](condition: (given WrappedResult[T]) => Boolean): T = {
    assert(condition(given x))
import PostConditions.{ensuring, result}

val s = List(1, 2, 3).sum.ensuring(result == 6)

Explanations: We use an implicit function type (given WrappedResult[T]) => Boolean as the type of the condition of ensuring. An argument to ensuring such as (result == 6) will therefore have a given instance of type WrappedResult[T] in scope to pass along to the result method. WrappedResult is a fresh type, to make sure that we do not get unwanted givens in scope (this is good practice in all cases where implicit parameters are involved). Since WrappedResult is an opaque type alias, its values need not be boxed, and since ensuring is added as an extension method, its argument does not need boxing either. Hence, the implementation of ensuring is as about as efficient as the best possible code one could write by hand:

{ val result = List(1, 2, 3).sum
  assert(result == 6)


For more info, see the blog article, (which uses a different syntax that has been superseded).

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