Dotty Documentation

0.1.1-bin-SNAPSHOT

Type System


The types are defined in dotty/tools/dotc/core/Types.scala

Class diagram

Proxy types and ground types

A type which inherits TypeProxy is a proxy for another type accessible using the underlying method, other types are called ground types and inherit CachedGroundType or UncachedGroundType.

Here's a diagram, copied from dotty/tools/dotc/core/Types.scala:

Type -+- ProxyType --+- NamedType ----+--- TypeRef
      |              |                 \
      |              +- SingletonType-+-+- TermRef
      |              |                |
      |              |                +--- ThisType
      |              |                +--- SuperType
      |              |                +--- ConstantType
      |              |                +--- MethodParam
      |              |                +----RecThis
      |              |                +--- SkolemType
      |              +- PolyParam
      |              +- RefinedOrRecType -+-- RefinedType
      |              |                   -+-- RecType
      |              +- HKApply
      |              +- TypeBounds
      |              +- ExprType
      |              +- AnnotatedType
      |              +- TypeVar
      |              +- PolyType
      |
      +- GroundType -+- AndType
                     +- OrType
                     +- MethodType -----+- ImplicitMethodType
                     |                  +- JavaMethodType
                     +- ClassInfo
                     |
                     +- NoType
                     +- NoPrefix
                     +- ErrorType
                     +- WildcardType

Representations of types

TypeRepresentation
p.x.typeTermRef(p, x)
p#TTypeRef(p, T)
p.x.T == p.x.type#TTypeRef(TermRef(p, x), T)
this.typeThisType
A & BAndType(A, B)
`AB`
=> TExprType(T)
p { refinedName }RefinedType(p, refinedName)
type of the value superSuperType
type T >: A <: BTypeRef with underlying type RealTypeBounds(A, B)
type T = ATypeRef with underlying type TypeAlias(A)
class p.C ...ClassInfo(p, C, ...)

Representation of methods

def f[A, B <: Ord[A]](x: A, y: B): Unit

is represented as:

val p = PolyType(List("A", "B"))(
  List(TypeBounds(Nothing, Any),
       TypeBounds(Nothing,
         RefinedType(Ordering,
           scala$math$Ordering$$T, TypeAlias(PolyParam(p, 0))))),
  m)

val m = MethodType(List("x", "y"),
  List(PolyParam(p, 0), PolyParam(p, 1)))(Unit)

(This is a slightly simplified version, e.g. we write Unit instead of TypeRef(TermRef(ThisType(TypeRef(NoPrefix,<root>)),scala),Unit)).

Note that a PolyParam refers to a type parameter using its index (here A is 0 and B is 1).

Subtyping checks

topLevelSubType(tp1, tp2) in dotty/tools/dotc/core/TypeComparer.scala checks if tp1 is a subtype of tp2.

Type rebasing

FIXME: This section is no longer accurate because https://github.com/lampepfl/dotty/pull/331 changed the handling of refined types.

Consider tests/pos/refinedSubtyping.scala

class Test {

  class C { type T; type Coll }

  type T1 = C { type T = Int }

  type T11 = T1 { type Coll = Set[Int] }

  type T2 = C { type Coll = Set[T] }

  type T22 = T2 { type T = Int }

  var x: T11 = _
  var y: T22 = _

  x = y
  y = x

}

We want to do the subtyping checks recursively, since it would be nice if we could check if T22 <: T11 by first checking if T2 <: T1. To achieve this recursive subtyping check, we remember that T2#T is really T22#T. This procedure is called rebasing and is done by storing refined names in pendingRefinedBases and looking them up using rebase.

Type caching

TODO

Type inference via constraint solving

TODO