Scala 3 offers a new way to define programs that can be invoked from the command line: A
@main annotation on a method turns this method into an executable program. Example:
@main def happyBirthday(age: Int, name: String, others: String*) = val suffix = age % 100 match case 11 | 12 | 13 => "th" case _ => age % 10 match case 1 => "st" case 2 => "nd" case 3 => "rd" case _ => "th" val bldr = new StringBuilder(s"Happy $age$suffix birthday, $name") for other <- others do bldr.append(" and ").append(other) bldr.toString
This would generate a main program
happyBirthday that could be called like this
> scala happyBirthday 23 Lisa Peter Happy 23rd birthday, Lisa and Peter
@main annotated method can be written either at the top-level or in a statically accessible object. The name of the program is in each case the name of the method, without any object prefixes. The
@main method can have an arbitrary number of parameters. For each parameter type there must be an instance of the
scala.util.CommandLineParser.FromString type class that is used to convert an argument string to the required parameter type. The parameter list of a main method can end in a repeated parameter that then takes all remaining arguments given on the command line.
The program implemented from a
@main method checks that there are enough arguments on the command line to fill in all parameters, and that argument strings are convertible to the required types. If a check fails, the program is terminated with an error message.
> scala happyBirthday 22 Illegal command line after first argument: more arguments expected > scala happyBirthday sixty Fred Illegal command line: java.lang.NumberFormatException: For input string: "sixty"
The Scala compiler generates a program from a
f as follows:
- It creates a class named
fin the package where the
@mainmethod was found
- The class has a static method
mainwith the usual signature. It takes an
Array[String]as argument and returns
- The generated
mainmethod calls method
fwith arguments converted using methods in the
For instance, the
happyBirthDay method above would generate additional code equivalent to the following class:
final class happyBirthday: import scala.util.CommandLineParser as CLP <static> def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = try happyBirthday( CLP.parseArgument[Int](args, 0), CLP.parseArgument[String](args, 1), CLP.parseRemainingArguments[String](args, 2)) catch case error: CLP.ParseError => CLP.showError(error)
<static> modifier above expresses that the
main method is generated as a static method of class
happyBirthDay. It is not available for user programs in Scala. Regular "static" members are generated in Scala using objects instead.
@main methods are the recommended scheme to generate programs that can be invoked from the command line in Scala 3. They replace the previous scheme to write program as objects with a special
App parent class. In Scala 2,
happyBirthday could be written also like this:
object happyBirthday extends App: // needs by-hand parsing of arguments vector ...
The previous functionality of
App, which relied on the "magic"
DelayedInit trait, is no longer available.
App still exists in limited form for now, but it does not support command line arguments and will be deprecated in the future. If programs need to cross-build between Scala 2 and Scala 3, it is recommended to use an explicit
main method with an
Array[String] argument instead.