A new trait
Matchable controls the ability to pattern match.
The Scala 3 standard library has a type
IArray for immutable arrays that is defined like this:
opaque type IArray[+T] = Array[_ <: T]
IArray type offers extension methods for
apply, but not for
update; hence it seems values of type
IArray cannot be updated.
However, there is a potential hole due to pattern matching. Consider:
val imm: IArray[Int] = ... imm match case a: Array[Int] => a(0) = 1
The test will succeed at runtime since
IArrays are represented as
Arrays at runtime. But if we allowed it, it would break the fundamental abstraction of immutable arrays.
Aside: One could also achieve the same by casting:
imm.asInstanceOf[Array[Int]](0) = 1
But that is not as much of a problem since in Scala
asInstanceOf is understood to be low-level and unsafe. By contrast, a pattern match that compiles without warning or error should not break abstractions.
Note also that the problem is not tied to opaque types as match selectors. The following slight variant with a value of parametric type
T as match selector leads to the same problem:
def f[T](x: T) = x match case a: Array[Int] => a(0) = 0 f(imm)
Finally, note that the problem is not linked to just opaque types. No unbounded type parameter or abstract type should be decomposable with a pattern match.
There is a new type
scala.Matchable that controls pattern matching. When typing a pattern match of a constructor pattern
C(...) or a type pattern
_: C it is required that the selector type conforms to
Matchable. If that's not the case a warning is issued. For instance when compiling the example at the start of this section we get:
> sc ../new/test.scala -source future -- Warning: ../new/test.scala:4:12 --------------------------------------------- 4 | case a: Array[Int] => a(0) = 0 | ^^^^^^^^^^ | pattern selector should be an instance of Matchable, | but it has unmatchable type IArray[Int] instead
To allow migration from Scala 2 and cross-compiling between Scala 2 and 3 the warning is turned on only for
-source future-migration or higher.
Matchable is a universal trait with
Any as its parent class. It is extended by both
Matchable is a supertype of every concrete value or reference class it means that instances of such classes can be matched as before. However, match selectors of the following types will produce a warning:
Any: if pattern matching is required one should use
- Unbounded type parameters and abstract types: If pattern matching is required they should have an upper bound
- Type parameters and abstract types that are only bounded by some universal trait: Again,
Matchableshould be added as a bound.
Here is the hierarchy of top-level classes and traits with their defined methods:
abstract class Any: def getClass def isInstanceOf def asInstanceOf def == def != def ## def equals def hashCode def toString trait Matchable extends Any class AnyVal extends Any, Matchable class Object extends Any, Matchable
Matchable is currently a marker trait without any methods. Over time we might migrate methods
isInstanceOf to it, since these are closely related to pattern-matching.
Methods that pattern-match on selectors of type
Any will need a cast once the Matchable warning is turned on. The most common such method is the universal
equals method. It will have to be written as in the following example:
class C(val x: String): override def equals(that: Any): Boolean = that.asInstanceOf[Matchable] match case that: C => this.x == that.x case _ => false
The cast of
Matchable serves as an indication that universal equality is unsafe in the presence of abstract types and opaque types since it cannot properly distinguish the meaning of a type from its representation. The cast is guaranteed to succeed at run-time since
Matchable both erase to
For instance, consider the definitions
opaque type Meter = Double def Meter(x: Double) = x opaque type Second = Double def Second(x: Double) = x
equals will return true for
even though this is clearly false mathematically. With multiversal equality one can mitigate that problem somewhat by turning
Meter(10) == Second(10)
into a type error.