Predef

scala.Predef$
object Predef

The Predef object provides definitions that are accessible in all Scala compilation units without explicit qualification.

Commonly Used Types

Predef provides type aliases for types which are commonly used, such as the immutable collection types scala.collection.immutable.Map and scala.collection.immutable.Set.

Console Output

For basic console output, Predef provides convenience methods print and println, which are aliases of the methods in the object scala.Console.

Assertions

A set of assert functions are provided for use as a way to document and dynamically check invariants in code. Invocations of assert can be elided at compile time by providing the command line option -Xdisable-assertions, which raises -Xelide-below above elidable.ASSERTION, to the scalac command.

Variants of assert intended for use with static analysis tools are also provided: assume, require and ensuring. require and ensuring are intended for use as a means of design-by-contract style specification of pre- and post-conditions on functions, with the intention that these specifications could be consumed by a static analysis tool. For instance,

def addNaturals(nats: List[Int]): Int = {
  require(nats forall (_ >= 0), "List contains negative numbers")
  nats.foldLeft(0)(_ + _)
} ensuring(_ >= 0)

The declaration of addNaturals states that the list of integers passed should only contain natural numbers (i.e. non-negative), and that the result returned will also be natural. require is distinct from assert in that if the condition fails, then the caller of the function is to blame rather than a logical error having been made within addNaturals itself. ensuring is a form of assert that declares the guarantee the function is providing with regards to its return value.

Implicit Conversions

A number of commonly applied implicit conversions are also defined here, and in the parent type scala.LowPriorityImplicits. Implicit conversions are provided for the "widening" of numeric values, for instance, converting a Short value to a Long value as required, and to add additional higher-order functions to Array values. These are described in more detail in the documentation of scala.Array.

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
Graph
Supertypes
class Object
trait Matchable
class Any
Self type
Predef.type

Members list

Concise view

Utility Methods

??? can be used for marking methods that remain to be implemented.

??? can be used for marking methods that remain to be implemented.

Attributes

Throws:

NotImplementedError when ??? is invoked.

Source:
Predef.scala
def classOf[T]: Class[T]

Retrieve the runtime representation of a class type.

Retrieve the runtime representation of a class type. classOf[T] is equivalent to the class literal T.class in Java.

Attributes

Returns:

The runtime Class representation of type T.

Example:

val listClass = classOf[List[_]]
// listClass is java.lang.Class[List[_]] = class scala.collection.immutable.List
val mapIntString = classOf[Map[Int,String]]
// mapIntString is java.lang.Class[Map[Int,String]] = interface scala.collection.immutable.Map
Source:
Predef.scala
def identity[A](x: A): A

A method that returns its input value.

A method that returns its input value.

Attributes

A

type of the input value x.

x

the value of type A to be returned.

Returns:

the value x.

Source:
Predef.scala
def implicitly[T](implicit e: T): T

Summon an implicit value of type T.

Summon an implicit value of type T. Usually, the argument is not passed explicitly.

Attributes

T

the type of the value to be summoned

Returns:

the implicit value of type T

Source:
Predef.scala
def locally[T](x: T): T

Used to mark code blocks as being expressions, instead of being taken as part of anonymous classes and the like.

Used to mark code blocks as being expressions, instead of being taken as part of anonymous classes and the like. This is just a different name for identity.

Attributes

Example:

Separating code blocks from new:

val x = new AnyRef
{
  val y = ...
  println(y)
}
// the { ... } block is seen as the body of an anonymous class
val x = new AnyRef
{
  val y = ...
  println(y)
}
// an empty line is a brittle "fix"
val x = new AnyRef
locally {
  val y = ...
  println(y)
}
// locally guards the block and helps communicate intent
Source:
Predef.scala
def valueOf[T](implicit vt: ValueOf[T]): T

Retrieve the single value of a type with a unique inhabitant.

Retrieve the single value of a type with a unique inhabitant.

Attributes

Example:

object Foo
val foo = valueOf[Foo.type]
// foo is Foo.type = Foo
val bar = valueOf[23]
// bar is 23.type = 23
Source:
Predef.scala

Assertions

These methods support program verification and runtime correctness.

def assert(assertion: Boolean): Unit

Tests an expression, throwing an AssertionError if false.

Tests an expression, throwing an AssertionError if false. Calls to this method will not be generated if -Xelide-below is greater than ASSERTION.

Attributes

assertion

the expression to test

See also:
Source:
Predef.scala
final def assert(assertion: Boolean, message: => Any): Unit

Tests an expression, throwing an AssertionError if false.

Tests an expression, throwing an AssertionError if false. Calls to this method will not be generated if -Xelide-below is greater than ASSERTION.

Attributes

assertion

the expression to test

message

a String to include in the failure message

See also:
Source:
Predef.scala
def assume(assumption: Boolean): Unit

Tests an expression, throwing an AssertionError if false.

Tests an expression, throwing an AssertionError if false. This method differs from assert only in the intent expressed: assert contains a predicate which needs to be proven, while assume contains an axiom for a static checker. Calls to this method will not be generated if -Xelide-below is greater than ASSERTION.

Attributes

assumption

the expression to test

See also:
Source:
Predef.scala
final def assume(assumption: Boolean, message: => Any): Unit

Tests an expression, throwing an AssertionError if false.

Tests an expression, throwing an AssertionError if false. This method differs from assert only in the intent expressed: assert contains a predicate which needs to be proven, while assume contains an axiom for a static checker. Calls to this method will not be generated if -Xelide-below is greater than ASSERTION.

Attributes

assumption

the expression to test

message

a String to include in the failure message

See also:
Source:
Predef.scala
def require(requirement: Boolean): Unit

Tests an expression, throwing an IllegalArgumentException if false.

Tests an expression, throwing an IllegalArgumentException if false. This method is similar to assert, but blames the caller of the method for violating the condition.

Attributes

requirement

the expression to test

Source:
Predef.scala
final def require(requirement: Boolean, message: => Any): Unit

Tests an expression, throwing an IllegalArgumentException if false.

Tests an expression, throwing an IllegalArgumentException if false. This method is similar to assert, but blames the caller of the method for violating the condition.

Attributes

message

a String to include in the failure message

requirement

the expression to test

Source:
Predef.scala

Console Output

These methods provide output via the console.

def printf(text: String, xs: Any*): Unit

Prints its arguments as a formatted string to the default output, based on a string pattern (in a fashion similar to printf in C).

Prints its arguments as a formatted string to the default output, based on a string pattern (in a fashion similar to printf in C).

The interpretation of the formatting patterns is described in java.util.Formatter.

Consider using the f interpolator as more type safe and idiomatic.

Attributes

text

the pattern for formatting the arguments.

xs

the arguments used to instantiate the pattern.

Throws:

java.lang.IllegalArgumentException if there was a problem with the format string or arguments

See also:
Source:
Predef.scala
def println(): Unit

Prints a newline character on the default output.

Prints a newline character on the default output.

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
def println(x: Any): Unit

Prints out an object to the default output, followed by a newline character.

Prints out an object to the default output, followed by a newline character.

Attributes

x

the object to print.

Source:
Predef.scala

Aliases

These aliases bring selected immutable types into scope without any imports.

val ->: Tuple2.type

Allows destructuring tuples with the same syntax as constructing them.

Allows destructuring tuples with the same syntax as constructing them.

Attributes

Example:

val tup = "foobar" -> 3
val c = tup match {
 case str -> i => str.charAt(i)
}
Source:
Predef.scala
type Class[T] = Class[T]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
type Function[-A, +B] = A => B

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
type Map[K, +V] = Map[K, V]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
val Map: Map.type

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
type Set[A] = Set[A]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
val Set: Set.type

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
type String = String

The String type in Scala has all the methods of the underlying java.lang.String, of which it is just an alias.

The String type in Scala has all the methods of the underlying java.lang.String, of which it is just an alias.

In addition, extension methods in scala.collection.StringOps are added implicitly through the conversion augmentString.

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

String Conversions

Conversions from String to StringOps or WrappedString.

implicit def augmentString(x: String): StringOps

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapString(s: String): WrappedString

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala

Implicit Classes

These implicit classes add useful extension methods to every type.

final implicit class ArrowAssoc[A](self: A) extends AnyVal

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
Graph
Supertypes
class AnyVal
trait Matchable
class Any
final implicit def ArrowAssoc[A](self: A): ArrowAssoc[A]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
final implicit class Ensuring[A](self: A) extends AnyVal

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
Graph
Supertypes
class AnyVal
trait Matchable
class Any
final implicit def Ensuring[A](self: A): Ensuring[A]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
final implicit class StringFormat[A](self: A) extends AnyVal

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
Graph
Supertypes
class AnyVal
trait Matchable
class Any
final implicit def StringFormat[A](self: A): StringFormat[A]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
final implicit class any2stringadd[A](self: A) extends AnyVal

Injects String concatenation operator + to any classes.

Injects String concatenation operator + to any classes.

Attributes

Deprecated
true
Source:
Predef.scala
Graph
Supertypes
class AnyVal
trait Matchable
class Any
final implicit def any2stringadd[A](self: A): any2stringadd[A]

Injects String concatenation operator + to any classes.

Injects String concatenation operator + to any classes.

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

CharSequence Wrappers

Wrappers that implements CharSequence and were implicit classes.

final class ArrayCharSequence(arrayOfChars: Array[Char]) extends CharSequence

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
Graph
Supertypes
class Object
trait Matchable
class Any

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
final class SeqCharSequence(sequenceOfChars: IndexedSeq[Char]) extends CharSequence

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
Graph
Supertypes
class Object
trait Matchable
class Any

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Java to Scala

Implicit conversion from Java primitive wrapper types to Scala equivalents.

implicit def Boolean2boolean(x: Boolean): Boolean

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def Byte2byte(x: Byte): Byte

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def Character2char(x: Character): Char

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def Double2double(x: Double): Double

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def Float2float(x: Float): Float

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def Integer2int(x: Integer): Int

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def Long2long(x: Long): Long

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def Short2short(x: Short): Short

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Scala to Java

Implicit conversion from Scala AnyVals to Java primitive wrapper types equivalents.

implicit def boolean2Boolean(x: Boolean): Boolean

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def byte2Byte(x: Byte): Byte

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def char2Character(x: Char): Character

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def double2Double(x: Double): Double

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def float2Float(x: Float): Float

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def int2Integer(x: Int): Integer

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def long2Long(x: Long): Long

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def short2Short(x: Short): Short

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Array to ArraySeq

Conversions from Arrays to ArraySeqs.

implicit def genericWrapArray[T](xs: Array[T]): ArraySeq[T]

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapByteArray(xs: Array[Byte]): ofByte

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapCharArray(xs: Array[Char]): ofChar

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapDoubleArray(xs: Array[Double]): ofDouble

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapFloatArray(xs: Array[Float]): ofFloat

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapIntArray(xs: Array[Int]): ofInt

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapLongArray(xs: Array[Long]): ofLong

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapRefArray[T <: AnyRef](xs: Array[T]): ofRef[T]

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapShortArray(xs: Array[Short]): ofShort

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def wrapUnitArray(xs: Array[Unit]): ofUnit

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala

Type members

Types

type Manifest[T] = Manifest[T]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Value members

Concrete methods

def manifest[T](implicit m: Manifest[T]): Manifest[T]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
def optManifest[T](implicit m: OptManifest[T]): OptManifest[T]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
transparent inline def summon[T](using inline x: T): T

Summon a given value of type T. Usually, the argument is not passed explicitly.

Summon a given value of type T. Usually, the argument is not passed explicitly.

Attributes

T

the type of the value to be summoned

Returns:

the given value typed: the provided type parameter

Source:
Predef.scala

Concrete fields

val Manifest: Manifest.type

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Extensions

Extensions

extension (x: AnyRef | Null)
inline def eq(inline y: AnyRef | Null): Boolean

Enables an expression of type T|Null, where T is a subtype of AnyRef, to be checked for null using eq rather than only ==. This is needed because Null no longer has eq or ne methods, only == and != inherited from Any.

Enables an expression of type T|Null, where T is a subtype of AnyRef, to be checked for null using eq rather than only ==. This is needed because Null no longer has eq or ne methods, only == and != inherited from Any.

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
inline def ne(inline y: AnyRef | Null): Boolean

Enables an expression of type T|Null, where T is a subtype of AnyRef, to be checked for null using ne rather than only !=. This is needed because Null no longer has eq or ne methods, only == and != inherited from Any.

Enables an expression of type T|Null, where T is a subtype of AnyRef, to be checked for null using ne rather than only !=. This is needed because Null no longer has eq or ne methods, only == and != inherited from Any.

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
extension [T](x: T | Null)
inline def nn: T | Null & T

Strips away the nullability from a value. Note that .nn performs a checked cast, so if invoked on a null value it will throw an NullPointerException.

Strips away the nullability from a value. Note that .nn performs a checked cast, so if invoked on a null value it will throw an NullPointerException.

Attributes

Example:
val s1: String | Null = "hello"
val s2: String = s1.nn
val s3: String | Null = null
val s4: String = s3.nn // throw NullPointerException
Source:
Predef.scala

Implicits

Implicits

implicit def $conforms[A]: A => A

An implicit of type A => A is available for all A because it can always be implemented using the identity function.

An implicit of type A => A is available for all A because it can always be implemented using the identity function. This also means that an implicit of type A => B is always available when A <: B, because (A => A) <: (A => B).

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def byteArrayOps(xs: Array[Byte]): ArrayOps[Byte]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def charArrayOps(xs: Array[Char]): ArrayOps[Char]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def floatArrayOps(xs: Array[Float]): ArrayOps[Float]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def genericArrayOps[T](xs: Array[T]): ArrayOps[T]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def intArrayOps(xs: Array[Int]): ArrayOps[Int]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def longArrayOps(xs: Array[Long]): ArrayOps[Long]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def refArrayOps[T <: AnyRef](xs: Array[T]): ArrayOps[T]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def shortArrayOps(xs: Array[Short]): ArrayOps[Short]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def tuple2ToZippedOps[T1, T2](x: (T1, T2)): Ops[T1, T2]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def tuple3ToZippedOps[T1, T2, T3](x: (T1, T2, T3)): Ops[T1, T2, T3]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def unitArrayOps(xs: Array[Unit]): ArrayOps[Unit]

Attributes

Source:
Predef.scala

Inherited implicits

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def byteWrapper(x: Byte): RichByte

We prefer the java.lang.* boxed types to these wrappers in any potential conflicts.

We prefer the java.lang.* boxed types to these wrappers in any potential conflicts. Conflicts do exist because the wrappers need to implement ScalaNumber in order to have a symmetric equals method, but that implies implementing java.lang.Number as well.

Note - these are inlined because they are value classes, but the call to xxxWrapper is not eliminated even though it does nothing. Even inlined, every call site does a no-op retrieval of Predef's MODULE$ because maybe loading Predef has side effects!

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def charWrapper(c: Char): RichChar

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def doubleWrapper(x: Double): RichDouble

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def floatWrapper(x: Float): RichFloat

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def intWrapper(x: Int): RichInt

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def longWrapper(x: Long): RichLong

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala
implicit def shortWrapper(x: Short): RichShort

Attributes

Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala

Deprecated and Inherited implicits

implicit def copyArrayToImmutableIndexedSeq[T](xs: Array[T]): IndexedSeq[T]

Attributes

Deprecated
true
Inherited from:
LowPriorityImplicits2 (hidden)
Source:
Predef.scala